African girl. Copyright Justyna Furmanczyk  

Strengthening open and flexible learning for increased education access in high HIV prevalence SADC countries


Annotated bibliography

Secondary Education
(10 documents)

ANSELL, N. (2002) Secondary Education reform in Lesotho and Zimbabwe and the Need of Rural Girls: Pronouncements, policy and practice. Comparative Education, 38, 91-112.
Analysis of the educational needs of rural girls in Lesotho and Zimbabwe suggests a number of shortcomings in the current form of secondary education, and ways in which it might be modified so as to serve this sizeable group of students better. Several of the shortcomings, notably in relation to curricular irrelevance and excessive focus on examinations, have long been recognised, including by politicians. Yet political pronouncements are seldom translated into policy, and even where policy is formulated, reforms are seldom implemented in schools. this paper makes use of interviews with educational decision-makers in the two Southern African countries and a range of documentary sources to explore why, despite the considerable differences between the two contexts, much needed educational reforms have been implemented in neither.

BHATNAGAR, D., DEWAN, A., TORRES, M. T. & KANUNGO, P. (n.d.) Female Secondary School Assistance Project, Bangladesh.
The Female Secondary School Assistance Project (FSSAP) was jointly initiated by the World Bank and the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) in 1993. The project attempted to address gender disparity in secondary education and thereby increase the number of educated women capable of participating fully in the economic and social development of the country. The primary component of FSSAP was the Stipend and Tuition program that ensured provision of monthly stipends to girl students from Grade 6 to Grade 10, that is, students 11 to 15 years old. The stipends covered the direct costs of schooling—one of the primary factors inhibiting the enrollment of girls at secondary level. Each stipend recipient was allotted a passbook and could independently transact and withdraw cash from the bank. An extensive information campaign attempted to raise public awareness on the importance of female education and the ensuing social and financial benefits. The project also took steps to enhance the school infrastructure, recruit female teachers and provide occupational training to girls leaving school. Community participation in the project was encouraged through community membership in parent-teacher associations that regularly met to address project - related issues. (Abstract an extract from the document). Document available online

FIGUEREDO, V. & ANZALONE, S. (2003) Alternative Models for Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Rationale and Realities. Improving Educational Quality (IEQ) Project. Washington, DC., American Institutes for Research.
This paper seeks to contribute to the international discussion of the potential of alternative models as a policy option to provide secondary school education in developing countries. The paper looks in detail at the rationale for expanding access to secondary education, even in countries that have not achieved universal primary education. It examines some of the experience of developing countries and the issues faced in creating and implementing alternative models at the secondary level. The paper highlights the experience of Honduras in developing an alternative junior secondary model. It notes that, although the Honduras experience is still a work in progress, the results of this experience warrant watching. The paper concludes with lessons learned from the literature on use of alternative models for secondary education.
Document available online

LEWIN, K. M. (2005) Planning post-primary education: Taking targets to task. International Journal of Educational Development, 25, 408-422.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have shaped much educational target setting by governments and their development partners to the extent that they have focused on just two of the commitments--universal enrolment and completion of primary schooling, and gender equality in primary and secondary school access and achievement. A consequence is that many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have yet to develop coherent plans for the post-primary sub-sector. Yet without expanded access beyond primary it is unlikely that the MDGs will be achieved. Privileging investment in the enrolment and completion of the last primary child over-investment at post-primary levels may satisfy a rights-based approach to development; it may not be the best strategy to sustain gains in access to educational services or to alleviate poverty through redistribution or growth. Skews in investment unfavourable to post-primary are partly the result of target setting that has been narrowly interpreted and which depends on assumptions that become questionable on close analysis. This paper first summarises the case for reconsidering investment strategies for post-primary education in general, and for secondary schooling in particular. Second, it explores issues related to target setting and target getting in relation to post-primary provision, many of which apply to target setting generally. Finally, concluding remarks draw together the case to reconsider how targets are defined and how they might be used in national planning more productively.
Document available online

LEWIN, K. M. (2005) Seeking Secondary Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: Four Fallacies, Four Foresights and Four. In BEVERIDGE, M., KING, K., PALMER, R. & WEDGWOOD, R. (Eds.) Reintegrating Education, Skills and Work in Africa : towards informal or Knowledge Economies? Towards Autonomy or Dependency in Development? University of Edinburgh, Centre for African Studies.

LEWIN, K. M. (2006 ) Planning for Secondary Expansion in Sub Saharan Africa - Key Issues for Sustainable Growth in Access. Perspectives in Education, 24.

LEWIN, K. M. & SAYED, Y. (2005) Non-governmental secondary schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa. exploring the Evidence in South Africa and Malawi. DFID Educational Papers: researching the issues.
This research is concerned with the development of non-government provision of secondary education in two countries, Malawi and South Africa. Pressure to expand secondary schooling has been growing rapidly in much of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), partly as a result of unsatisfied demand for places as primary schooling is universalised. There is growing dissatisfaction with the quality of public secondary education systems, many of which have been neglected since the 1980s. The priority attached to Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that relate more closely to education has resulted in much public investment and external support being directed towards universalising primary schooling. As a result budgetary provision for secondary growth can be accommodated at least in part through increased enrolment in non-government institutions, and through various kinds of partnership between the State and non-government agencies. The extent to which this is likely to be true, and the consequences of depending on such a strategy, are poorly understood. This research seeks to explore the realities, identify the opportunities and risks, and reach policy-relevant conclusions. (Abstract by author/s)

PAUD, M. (1993) Costs of an Alternative Form of Second-Level Education in Malawi.  Comparative Education Review, 37, 107-22.
Compares Malawi's study center system of secondary education, involving community centers, distance education institutions, radio programs, and self-instructional materials, with traditional secondary schools with regard to cost, access, full-examination passes, and subject passes. Finds that study centers increase access to second- level education at a relatively low cost.

SIBISI, R. C. (1962) Development of Secondary Education in Basutoland. Pretoria, UNISA.
The thesis provides the historical development of secondary education in Lesotho, including the provision of teaching by the colonial government. It highlights earlier commissions that raised concerns about the apathetic regard for Lesotho's education by the colonial government which was later followed an attempt to control what goes on education through the grant-in-aid that facilitated the supply of teachers to schools that were, in the majority, owned by churches.

TILAK, J. B. G. (2006) Post-Basic Education and Training. Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh.


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