African girl. Copyright Justyna Furmanczyk  

Strengthening open and flexible learning for increased education access in high HIV prevalence SADC countries


Annotated bibliography

Open, Distance, and Flexible Education (11 documents)

EDIRISINGHA, P. (1999) Open and distance learning for basic and non-formal education in developing countries. Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning Empowerment through knowledge and technology. Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, International Research Foundation for Open Learning.
The paper is concerned with the use of open and distance learning to provide basic and non-formal education for the millions of unreached children and adults in the developing world. Despite the failure to attain universal education, proclamation after proclamation, the international community has failed to give serious thoughts in this regard. This paper identifies that the lack of policy guidance, based on educational and economic data, for the decision makers in ministries of education and funding agencies as one reason for this. A two-year research project aimed at providing such guidelines, on the use of open and distance learning for basic and non-formal education in developing countries, has been undertaken by the Cambridge-based International Research Foundation for Open Learning, with funding from Centre for British Teachers. This paper presents the rational, research questions, and the progress of the research.

MOORE, M. & TAIT, A. (2002) Open and Distance Learning. Trends, Policy and Strategy Considerations.Paris, UNESCO.
The terms open learning and distance education represent approaches that focus on opening access to education and training provision, freeing learners from the constraints of time and place, and offering flexible learning opportunities to individuals and groups of learners. Open and distance learning is one of the most rapidly growing fields of education, and its potential impact on all education delivery systems has been greatly accentuated through the development of Internet-based information technologies, and in particular the World Wide Web. The objective of this paper is to review open and distance learning in the context of present challenges and opportunities, examine relevant concepts and contributions, outline current global and regional trends, suggest policy and strategy considerations, and identify UNESCO’s initiatives in open and distance learning, including its role in capacity-building and international co-operation. It is addressed to a wide range of potential partners, governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, specialized institutions, associations, industrial corporations, telecommunication companies, and others interested in this field, to seek their co-operation in meeting today's urgent education and training needs, through open and distance learning. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

NAMCOL (2001) The Open Learning Approach: A plan for implementing a multiple mode delivery in NAMCOL’s programme of alternative secondary education.
The document presents the Open Learning Approach that is used by the NAMCOL to provide alternative secondary education to learners in Namibia. The report provides the well planned stages NAMCOL went through in developing the Open Learning Approach, which is a multiple-learning approach developed from two separate programmes it inherited upon its inception; the Distance Education mode of learning that was heavily dependent on study materials and the face-to-face approach that was not supported by any study materials and where students enjoyed only a few hours of contact per month. Based on the research done to get stakeholder views, the report gives some of the recommendations made in order to improve the quality of the Alternative Secondary Education Programme.

PERRATON, H. D., LENTELL, H. & COMMONWEALTH OF LEARNING (2004) Policy for Open and Distance Learning. London, RoutledgeFalmer.

PERRATON, H. D. (2006) Open and Distance Learning in the Developing World. London, Routledge
This revised and updated edition of Open and Distance Learning in the Developing World sets the expansion of distance education in the context of general educational change and explores its use for basic and non-formal education, schooling, teacher training and higher education.  Engaging with a range of topics, this comprehensive overview includes new material on: 
-non-formal education: mass-communication approaches to education about HIV/AIDS and recent literacy work in India, South Africa, and Zambia
-schooling: new research projects in open schooling in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and interactive radio instruction in South Africa
-the impact of new technology and globalisation: learning delivered through the internet and mobile learning -the political economy: international agencies, the role of private sector, and funding.
With its critical appraisal of the facts and examination of data about effectiveness, this book provides answers to problems and poses key questions for the consideration of policy makers, educational practitioners and all professionals involved in implementing and delivering sustainable open and distance learning. (Abstract by Routledge)

PRIDMORE, P. & YATES, C. (2008) Flexible education tackles HIV in southern Africa. Id21 Education Highlights. Education Research. 5, 3. Document available online

PRYOR, J. & AMPIAH, J. G. (2003) Understandings of Education in African Village: The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies. Researching the Issues 52. London, Department for International Development

PYE, D. & STEPHENSON, J. (2003) Using ICT to Increase the Effectiveness of Community-Based, Non-Formal Education for Rural People in Sub-Saharan Africa. The CERP Project.London, Department for International Development

RUMBLE, G. (1989) 'Open learning', 'Distance learning', and the misuse of language. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 4, 28-36.
In this article Greville Rumble, Planning Officer of the Open University, argues that the way in which the terms 'open learning' and 'distance learning' are used in practice is frequently misleading. Open learning has to do with access, structures, and the presence of dialogue and support systems. Many contiguous and distance education systems are open in their practices. In contrast, many so-called 'open learning systems' are anything but open. This article examines the claims being made, and argues the need for greater clarity of thought and expression.
Document available online

SAIDE (2005) Costing Distance Education and Open Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Policy and Practice. Paris, ADEA Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning; the Commonwealth of Learning; South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE)
The report was conducted on behalf of COL by the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) as part of COL's partnership agreement with the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. The report identifies criteria and conditions for quality and critical success factors and the second provides a costing tool.

YATES, C., BRADLEY, J. & COMMONWEALTH OF LEARNING (2000) Basic Education at a Distance.London, RoutledgeFalmer.
Open and distance learning has been used in many ways in the recent past to provide both primary education and adult education. The Commonwealth of Learning works with governments, schools and universities with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Commonwealth member countries in developing human resources required for their economic and social development. Many existing policy documents link distance education with new information and communication technologies, portraying them as a promising universal access and exponential growth of learning. This book reviews world experience in order to answer key questions about open and distance learning in basic education. It is the first major overview of this topic for twenty years.
Document available online


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