African girl. Copyright Justyna Furmanczyk  

Strengthening open and flexible learning for increased education access in high HIV prevalence SADC countries


Annotated bibliography

Lesotho (18 documents)

CARR-HILL, R., SEBATANE, M. & CARAHER, M. (2002b) Evaluation of School Feeding Programme in Lesotho. Final Draft of Final Report. Maseru, Ministry of Education.
The report outlines challenges relating to the school feeding scheme including accessibility of schools, although the situation varied widely between the ecological zones. Moreover, the climate and terrain make it difficult to source food locally and for some of the cooks there is the additional problem of having to travel to buy food and then transport it back to the village, where they have to store it in their home (due to lack of adequate storage facilities in the school and problems with theft) and then transport it from their home to the school. These problems also faced the WFP foodstuffs reaching the mountain schools. There were also reports that sometimes villagers stole or destroyed the produce and other property of the selfreliance feeding projects. (Extract from the report)

HALL, D. (2007) Dying of AIDS, Dying of Fear. Barriers to VCT uptake in a Lesotho Garment Factory. ALAFA - Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight AIDS.
The garment sector, which generates the bulk of Lesotho’s exports and employs around 47,000 people, will be particularly hard hit by the pandemic as it employs large numbers of women in vulnerable age categories.  In response, a private sector initiative, known as the Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight Aids (ALAFA), was launched in May 2006 to provide education and prevention, VCT, and management of the disease through the roll-out of antiretroviral drugs.  This report documents the findings of an in-depth investigation carried out in one of the ALAFA-supported factories (Precious Garments) into the use of VCT and related services now being offered by the Project.  Given the widespread interest in issues related to the uptake of VCT and ARV services, the report is likely to be of value to other work-based VCT/ARV projects, as well as to those working more widely in the HIV/AIDS sector. Download document

HUA, H. (2007) Report on Primary School Enrollment in Lesotho. Maseru.
The paper reports on the impact of FPE on school enrollments covering the period 1999 to 2000. It notes net and gross enrollment increases which can be attributed to the introduction of FPE and deduces that the impact is likely to have improved access to the poor section of Basotho. It notes however, that the increases were most notable at first in the new entrants and were not sustained after the mid-years of 2002 and 2003. The paper provided some disaggregated analysis noting that boys more than girls, urban more than rural schools seem to have benefited. It also noted that there has been a decline in the enrollments in church-owned schools in favour of government-owned schools.

KIMANE, I. & MTURI, A. J. (2001) Rapidly assessing child labour in Lesotho. Report submitted to the Government of Lesotho and UNICEF. Maseru.
The report highlights the plight of the ‘boy child’ in Lesotho and the tendency to keep boys out of school in order to attend to economic activities such as herding. The study is reported to yield important information about the nature, dimensions and extent of child labour and work in Lesotho and present a useful picture of children who are herding, working as domestic workers, and working from and on the streets. The paper argues that the elimination of child labour cannot be achieved through an education policy alone. It observes that the situation of poverty, especially the growing number of children forced to become economically self-sufficient in the face of the HIV and AIDS pandemic - poses severe challenges to progress towards the elimination of child labour.

LEROTHOLI, L. M. (2001) Tuition Fees in Primary and Secondary Education in Lesotho: the levels and implications for access, equity and efficiency. Paris.
The reports reviews financing of primary and secondary education in Lesotho highlighting the unique historical ownership of schools in the country and also providing a macro level analysis of government budget and expenditure. Then the report focuses on tuition fees and its regulation, assessing the impact of tuition fees on access and equity. The report recommends greater regulation of tuition fees and increased participation by communities in the management of primary and secondary schools, away from the traditional practice of church authorities setting and charging fees without accounting for their spending.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING (1975) First five-year Education Plan. Maseru, Government of Lesotho.
The first of a series of five year plans largely based on external expert review of the education system. The plan attempted to bring greater relevance into Lesotho's education system and increased involvement by the Government of Lesotho against the backdrop of extremely high church ownership.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING (2004) Final Main Report. Impact Assessment of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Lesotho. Government of Lesotho.
The report outlines Lesotho's HIV and AIDS situation. Lesotho is one of the world’s worst affected countries in terms of HIV/AIDS, and the conditions facing the country and its people suggest that the epidemic will be especially difficult to tackle. This underlines the particularly important role the education sector must play in responding to the epidemic, both as an employer of considerable size and as the organisation that is in regular contact with the vast majority of Basotho who are not infected. Indeed no other organisation has, as a ‘captive audience’, the vast majority of Basotho who are HIV negative. Available evidence suggests that Lesotho has one of the highest levels of HIV infection in the world. This study suggests that HIV prevalence for 15-49 year old Basotho was 31% as of 2002, with rates in Maseru at already well over 40%, and will rise to 35% by 2006 (initial evidence from the 2003 seroprevalence survey suggests that these projects are underestimates). The severity and progress of the epidemic in Lesotho is highlighted by the fact that Lesotho will be one of the first countries to enter a ‘die off’ phase of negative population growth, which is expected to occur before the end of this decade.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING (2008) Lesotho Open and Distance Learning Policy: Final Draft. Government of Lesotho.

MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (2004) Lesotho Vision 2020: Empowerment for Prosperity.Morija, Morija Printing Works.
A result of the National Dialogue on the Development of a National Vision for Lesotho was held at the National Convention Centre in Maseru from 17 to 19 January 2001, the document was informed by presentations on Lesotho’s past economic performance, reviews of the new concepts of development and a definition the process of formulating a National Vision. It highlights Lesotho's deep developmental problems and the failure of post-independence policies to improve social indicators such as better health, nutrition, education, political freedom and cleaner environment as well as current weaknesses, risks and threats in the country's political and socio-economic development. It further examined an array of challenges facing Lesotho at the birth of the new millennium including, increasing levels of poverty, escalating unemployment, environmental degradation, economic and political instability and HIV/AIDS pandemic. The recommendations include the promotion of social cohesion, democratisation of society and human capacity development in order to take advantage of the windows of opportunity open to Lesotho, for turning the challenges into opportunities.

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE (2001) The Problems of Orphans in Lesotho. Final Report by Ntlafalang Consultants.
The report by an NGO in Lesotho outlines some of the problems faced by orphaned and vulnerable children in the country. It describes how as the situation of poverty and vulnerability reaches crisis proportions in the country there is growing abuse of children through exploitative labour practices and the abuse of very young children in employment.

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE (2005) National OVC Strategic Plan 2005-2010. Maseru, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Lesotho.
The National OVC Strategic Plan gives direction through which OVC service provision will be improved. It elaborates the traditional OVC welfare system in the country. Traditionally, OVC care was the responsibility of the community, that is, the extended family, the chiefs and other traditional structures. This has been eroded by the shift from tradition to modernization thus leaving OVC without proper care, support and guidance. The corporate strategic direction given in the OVC strategic plan calls for highly concerted efforts from Government, communities and even the children themselves for orphan-hood and vulnerability of children has turned into a national crisis, that compels OVC care and development to be regarded and addressed very aggressively by all the parties concerned.

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE (2006) Lesotho National Action Plan for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children. Maseru, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Lesotho
The Lesotho costed OVC National Action Plan (NAP) is a product of a concerted effort of OVC service providers, government line ministries, NGOs, and CBOs; and the process was consultative of all levels of the OVC national structures that provide care, protection and support to the OVC. The costed NAP emerges out of a context of a growing crisis and a realisation that previous approaches were unsuccessful in addressing the situation, because of, among other reasons, the lack of skills and ability to do a proper situational analysis.

MTURI, A. J. (2003) Gender gap in school enrolment among youth in Lesotho. Development Southern Africa. 20, 491 - 504.
The article uses data from the 1996 population census of Lesotho and the Ministry of Education's annual reports compiled during the period 1990 - 9 to investigate the trend of the gap between male and female enrolment in schools and higher learning institutions. The study examines various education indicators, school enrolments and drop out rates. There is no doubt that the gender gap still exists in Lesotho in favour of females. Both cohort analysis and the analysis of dropout rates have shown that there is gender imbalance in schooling. In addition, the analysis has shown that the gender gap has recently started to narrow in primary, secondary and high schools but is widening at tertiary level. The article recommends that the government of Lesotho should look critically at the issue of the disadvantaged 'boy child' if it intends to eliminate gender disparities in schools.

NATIONAL AIDS COMMISSION (2006) National HIV and AIDS Policy. Maseru, National AIDS Commission.
The National HIV and AIDS Policy framework was developed as a follow-up on the outcomes of the National Joint Review that identified general and specific needs and gaps in the current policy and legislative framework. The policy was developed following recognition that there was need to strengthen institutional arrangements for the coordination of the multi-sector HIV and AIDS response and provide guidelines for stakeholders in the formulation of the National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan and the development of sectoral policies and plans. Also driving the policy is the current burden resulting from the high HIV and AIDS prevalence rates in the country and its impact evidenced by among others growing numbers of orphaned children and widows. The policy is also aimed at guiding the development and execution of interventions to prevent the violation of the human rights of orphaned and vulnerable children (OVCs). It is further aimed at identifying and analysing the drivers of the epidemic such as poverty and food insecurity, unemployment, alcohol and drug abuse, sexual behaviour, including multiple relationships and intergenerational sex, gender inequity and migrant labour. The policy will guide the analysis of the impact of the epidemic, the current policy framework, the current response and level of commitment, research and evaluation and increased multi-sectoral response coordination.

NATIONAL AIDS COMMISSION (2007) National AIDS Commission Plan, Lesotho. National AIDS Commission, Government of Lesotho.

NGO COALITION FOR THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD SAVE THE CHILDREN UK (2000) Complementary Report on the Implementation of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in Lesotho.
The report describes Lesotho's response to the HIV and AIDS noting the inadequancies in the current data systems on the orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) and the poor coordination. It also notes the growing pressure resulting from the HIV and AIDS epidemic and increased poverty and unemployment evidenced in increasing numbers of orphans and vulnerable children. It recommends greater harmony and coordination in both policy and implementation aimed at addressing the needs of the OVCs.

UN (2005) The Voices of Young People: Lesotho Youth Identity Study 2004. Maseru, United Nations.
A report on youth identity in Lesotho allowed for young people to express their plights on several pertinent issues in their countries such as war and HIV and AIDS. This report advanced a paradigmic change advocated by the Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan who earlier advocated for the change in regard for children as resources to solving problems rather than sources of problems; as investments rather than expenses, in a special session allowing for children from a diverse background including conflict zones and high prevalence areas to address world leaders in the General Assembly during a landmark three day special session on children.

WASON, D. & HALL, D. (2004) Poverty in Lesotho: 1993 to 2002: An overview of household economic status and government policy. Working paper 40. Manchester, IDPM/Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC).
This paper provides an overview of poverty in Lesotho from a longitudinal perspective. The first few sections give a brief background to Lesotho, in particular the physical, economic, political and demographic context are discussed. They show how Lesotho is in many ways a typical sub-Saharan country except that it possibly has less natural resources than most. Against this is the healthy climate and the fact that its proximity to South Africa has meant that the economy has been supported by the migrant labour of Basotho men working in the South African mines. Despite the fact that this migrant labour is now decreasing Lesotho has seen a growth in her economy based on the development of her textiles industries and major engineering works. However there is little evidence that this growth is reflected in the incomes and living standards of her people, particularly those in the rural areas and it appears that there is growing inequality in Basotho society. Particular groups are more vulnerable to poverty than others, in particular the long term sick (including HIV/AIDS sufferers), the disabled, orphans and the elderly dependent. The HIV rate in Lesotho is currently in excess of 40% amongst certain groups which has significance for the economy. There have been several previous poverty studies in Lesotho but all have been cross-sectional in form. These were undertaken in 1989, 1993 and 1999. In 2002, 328 of the households which were interviewed in 1993 were revisited. It was found that, in terms of income, most households had not kept up with inflation with the exception of the highest two quintiles. Most of the poorer households had also lost assets. Those households who were in the bottom two income quintiles in 1993 and were still below a poverty line set at that level and inflated accordingly in 2002, were therefore poorer today in relative and absolute terms than in 1993. There had however been considerable mobility with some families becoming rapidly poorer due to lost paid employment and some moving up due to gains in waged employment or increased productivity of the land. It was found that whilst the presence of a paid worker prevents a household from falling into poverty the loss of this worker can have catastrophic results. Hence Basotho households like to diversify their sources of livelihood and utilise local resources as risk averting strategies.

WORLD BANK (2005) Building on Free Primary Education, Primary and Secondary Education in Lesotho: A Country Status Report. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series. Washington.
The report presents Lesotho's response to the goal of universal primary education, providing an overview of the system and examining the issues and trade-offs that face policy makers. It describes the impact of the phased removal of primary school fees and the resultant steady expansion of net enrollment rates 85% and the reported improvement of completion rates to 65%. The report outlines some of the socio-economic challenges presented by Lesotho's limited natural resources and dependence on South Africa as well as educational quality challenges that include a growing proportion of unqualified teachers and poor outcomes such as the very low SACMEQ results. Also putting a strain on the resources is the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the poor access rates in rural areas. The report concludes that reaching the many children who remain out of school and those who drop out of school will require innovative approaches, increased efficiency rates and a comprehensive delivery that includes a reallocation of resources.

WINAI-STROM, G. (1986) Migration and Development: Dependence on South Africa. A study of Lesotho. Uppsala, Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Migrant labour is the main source of income of Lesotho society. Its dependence on wage employment as defined by South Africa and the restrictions of foreign contract labour has made Lesotho and its government increasingly vulnerable. The geo-political situation does not seem to give much hope either. Still, the political strategy and the mechanisms of dependence have changed as a result of conscious actions undertaken by the Lesotho government. The dramatic development of this migrant labour society illustrates the realities and the potential for change. It gives crucial insights into the South African conflict today.

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