African girl. Copyright Justyna Furmanczyk  

Strengthening open and flexible learning for increased education access in high HIV prevalence SADC countries


Annotated bibliography

HIV/AIDS (76 documents)

ABEBE, T. & AASE, A. (2007) Children, AIDS and the politics of orphan care in Ethiopia: The extended family revisited. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 2058-2069.
The astounding rise in the number of orphans due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has left many Ethiopian families and communities with enormous childcare problems. Available studies on the capacity and sustainability of the extended family system, which culturally performs the role of care for children in need, suggest two competing theories. The first is grounded in the social rupture thesis and assumes that the traditional system of orphan care is stretched by the impact of the epidemic, and is actually collapsing. By contrast, the second theory counter-suggests that the flexibility and strength of the informal childcare practise, if supported by appropriate interventions, can still support a large number of orphans. Based on a seven-month period of child-focused, qualitative research fieldwork in Ethiopia involving observations; in-depth interviews with orphans (42), social workers (12) and heads of households (18); focus group discussions with orphans (8), elderly people and community leaders (6); and story-writing by children in school contexts, this article explores the trade-offs and social dynamics of orphan care within extended family structures in Ethiopia. It argues that there is a rural-urban divide in the capacity to cater for orphans that emanates from structural differences as well as the sociocultural and economic values associated with children. The care of orphans within extended family households is also characterised by multiple and reciprocal relationships in care-giving and care-receiving practices. By calling for a contextual understanding of the 'orphan burden', the paper concludes that interventions for orphans may consider care as a continuum in the light of four profiles of extended families, namely rupturing, transient, adaptive, and capable families. (Abstract by author/s) Document available online

ABLEIDINGER, J., CASE, A. & PAXSON, C. (2004) Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment. Demography, 41 483-508.
We examine the impact of orphanhood on children's school enrollment in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. Although poorer children in Africa are less likely to attend school, the lower enrollment of orphans is not accounted for solely by their poverty. We find that orphans are less likely to be enrolled than are nonorphans with whom they live. Consistent with Hamilton's rule, the theory that the closeness of biological ties governs altruistic behavior, outcomes for orphans depend on the relatedness of orphans to their household heads. The lower enrollment of orphans is largely explained by the greater tendency of orphans to live with distant relatives or unrelated caregivers. (Abstract by author/s)

ADAMS, S. (2006) Bringing the AIDS response home: Empowering district and local authorities in Lesotho, Tanzania and Mpumalanga (South Africa). GTZ.
The report describes how, with GTZ's technical support, the Kingdom of Lesotho, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Province of Mpumalanga in the Republic of South Africa have been empowering districts and localities to respond to AIDS. The approach, in all three cases, has been learn-as-you go. Methods and tools are developed and applied and, then, when they do not work as well as hoped, they are refined or replaced with new methods, new tools and new approaches. This paper shares lessons learned and methods and tools used in Lesotho, Tanzania, Mpumalanga and invites readers to use and adapt them in whatever ways may be appropriate for other settings (Abstract by author/s)

AINSWORTH, M. & FILMER, D. (2002) Poverty, AIDS and Children's schooling: a targeting dilemma, Policy Working Paper 2885. Washington DC, World Bank.
The relationship between orphan status, household economic status, and child school enrollment across lo
w-income countries varies substantially. Orphans sometimes have lower enrollment than non-orphans, but in many countries, the difference is small and not statistically significantly different from zero. The orphan enrollment gap is typically dwarfed by the gap between children from richer and poorer households. Often, even children from richer households have low enrollments--suggesting constraints to enrollment for all children. Girl orphans are typically not disproportionately affected in terms of enrollment. Policies need to assess country-specific situations, focusing on the interaction between orphan status, poverty, and the education system more generally-before considering school-related orphan-specific mitigation measures.

AINSWORTH, M. & FILMER, D. (2006) Inequalities in children's schooling: AIDS, orphanhood, poverty, and gender. World Development, 34, 1099-1128.
The relationship between orphan status, household economic status, and child school enrollment across low-income countries varies substantially. Orphans sometimes have lower enrollment than non-orphans, but in many countries, the difference is small and not statistically significantly different from zero. The orphan enrollment gap is typically dwarfed by the gap between children from richer and poorer households. Often, even children from richer households have low enrollments-suggesting constraints to enrollment for all children. Girl orphans are typically not disproportionately affected in terms of enrollment. Policies need to assess country-specific situations, focusing on the interaction between orphan status, poverty, and the education system more generally--before considering school-related orphan-specific mitigation measures.
Document available online

AKOULOUZE, R., RUGALEMA, G. & KHANYE, V. (2001) Taking stock of promising approaches in HIV/AIDS and education in sub-Saharan Africa: What works, why and how.  A synthesis of country case studies. ADEA Biennial Meeting, 7-11 October 2001
Presently the epidemic afflicts close to 40 million people, almost three quarters of whom are found in sub-Saharan Africa. The education sector, like many other sectors, has not escaped the ravage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is not only the fringes of the education system but also, and more critically, the nerve centre of the system that is being attacked by the epidemic. The HIV/AIDS impact on education may be classified into: the impact on the demand for education, the impact on the supply, and the impact on the quality of educational services. Ministries of Education have not sat passively but have actively acted to control the epidemic and its ravages in the education system. A variety of interventions have been designed and implemented. Are these interventions showing promise and, if so, how? These are the questions that have shaped the exercise reported in this document. (Direct quotation from the report)

ALLEMANO, E. (2003) HIV/AIDS: A Threat to Educational Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa. An Analytical Framework and Implications for Policy Development. Paris, ADEA.
This study is intended to provide an analytical framework to assist educational decision makers of sub-Saharan Africa and their partners in assessing the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on educational quality. The practical value of the framework is to provide guidelines in setting educational policy priorities and designing planning strategies to support national efforts in reaching the Education for All goals. Evidence of the impact of the HIV/AIDS on educational quality is still limited and too often anecdotal. While more systematic research is required, enough information is currently available to draw some implications for policy development. The author argues that the theme of educational quality is particularly appropriate for developing policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the education sector, because the responses must be multi-faceted and holistic to take into account the complex factors that mediate the achievement of educational quality. A focus on a single factor, such as teacher supply or curriculum, would be insufficient to protect the education sector from the impact of the epidemic. In essence, the effort to prevent and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in the education sector must be mainstreamed in strategies to promote and protect educational
quality. (Abstract by author/s)

ANSELL, N. & YOUNG, L. (2004) Enabling households to support successful migration of AIDS orphans in southern Africa. AIDS Care, 16, 3-10.
Most southern African orphans are cared for by extended families but the implications of the spatial dispersal of such families are seldom recognized: orphans often have to migrate to new homes and communities. This paper, based on qualitative research conducted with children and guardians in urban and rural Lesotho and Malawi, examines orphans' migration experiences in order to assess how successful migration might best be supported. Most children found migration traumatic in the short term, but over time many settled into new environments. Although much AIDS policy in southern Africa stresses the role of communities, the burden of care lay with extended family households. Failed migrations, which resulted in renewed migration and trauma, were attributable to one of two household-level causes: orphans feeling ill-treated in their new families or changes in guardians' circumstances. Policy interventions to reduce disruption and trauma for young AIDS migrants should aim at facilitating sustainable arrangements by enabling suitable households to provide care. Reducing the economic costs of caring for children, particularly school-related costs, would: allow children to stay with those relatives (e.g. grandparents) best able to meet their non-material needs; reduce resentment of foster children in impoverished households; and diminish the need for multiple migrations.
Document available online

ASPAAS, H. R. (1999) AIDS and orphans in Uganda: geographical and gender interpretations of household resources. The Social Science Journal, 36, 201-226.
Ugandan households provide crisis fostering for the orphans of relatives who have died of AIDS. Using the household as the basic unit of analysis, this research noted the gender of the household head and the location of the household on a rural to urban continuum in order to determine differential outlays of the household’s resources for the education of orphans. Significant differences were identified. Indigenous children in men-headed households were enrolled in school at a higher rate than school-age orphans in the same households. In contrast, rural women, who have the lowest levels of education, showed no partiality in enrolling both indigenous children and orphans in school when they were the household heads.  (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

ATWINE, B., CANTOR-GRAAE, E. & BAJUNIRWE, F. (2005) Psychological distress among AIDS orphans in rural Uganda. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 555-564.
The objective of this study was to investigate the psychosocial consequences of AIDS orphanhood in a rural district in Uganda and to identify potential areas for future interventions. The study was conducted in a randomly selected sub-county in Bushenyi District in Uganda. The study population consisted of 123 children aged 11-15 years whose parents (one or both) were reported to have died from AIDS and 110 children of similar age and gender living in intact households in the same neighbourhood. Symptoms of psychological distress were assessed using the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI). The standardized interview also included questions concerning current and past living conditions. A multivariate analysis of factors with possible relevance for BYI outcome showed that orphan status was the only significant outcome predictor. Orphans had greater risk (vs. non-orphans) for higher levels of anxiety (odds ratios (OR)=6.4), depression (OR=6.6), and anger (OR=5.1). Furthermore, orphans had significantly higher scores than non-orphans on individual items in the Beck Youth Depression Inventory that are regarded as particularly "sensitive" to the possible presence of a depressive disorder, i.e. vegetative symptoms, feelings of hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. High levels of psychological distress found in AIDS orphans suggest that material support alone is not sufficient for these children.
Document available online

BADOCK-WALTERS, P. & WHITESIDE, A. (1999) HIV/AIDS and Development in the Education Sector. Briefing Paper for UK Department of International Development.
African education programmes are both susceptible and vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. This paper points out the underlying problem of HIV/AIDS in the context of educational development, and also identifies opportunities for remedial action and positive enablement, which is that given the importance of education as a transformative force, there is little doubt the education sectors in these countries can become a site for containment or disaster.

BADCOCK-WALTERS, P. & BOLER, T. (2004) Costing Distance Education and Open Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Policy and Practice
This report documents the outcomes of the first international survey of education sector readiness to manage and mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS. Ministries of educaiton (MoEs) in 71 countries and civil societie organizations in 18 countires were interviewed, in person and electronically, in separate research processes. Both surveys were conducted in 2004 on behalf of the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. This report sets out to identify and synthesise key issues arising from MoEs and civil society responses to the nine sections of the GRS or CSS equivalent questionaire with regard to:
•  Ministry of education HIV and AIDS structures
•  Enabling environment for an effective response to HIV and AIDS
•  HIV and AIDS mainstreaming
•  Workplace issues and human resources
•  Workplace HIV and AIDS programmes
•  HIV and AIDS and the curriculum
•  Responses aimed at those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS
•  Partnership development in response to HIV and AIDS
•  Research guiding the response to HIV and AIDS in the education sector.

BAXEN, J. & BREIDLID, A. (2004) Researching HIV/AIDS and education in Sub-Saharan Africa: examining the gaps and challenges. Journal of Education, 34, 9 -29.
In this paper we argue that research in HIV/AIDS within the education sector is largely influenced by dominant discourses within economics, medicine and epidemiology sectors which, by and large, fail to take into consideration the social and cultural embeddedness of the disease. Through a critique of the current research conducted in the last ten years, we trace three major trends of research in HIV/AIDS and education and suggest that these trends, while useful, neglect the situated context in which messages, knowledge, experience and practice are produced, reproduced and expressed. We suggest that new research has to pay close attention to developing an understanding of where and how knowledge is produced and reproduced if this sector is to contribute to enabling teachers and learners to make informed choices about their behavioural practices. (Abstract by author/s)

BENNELL, P. (2005) The impact of the AIDS epidemic on teachers in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Development Studies, 41 440-466.
This is the second of two articles that assess the available evidence concerning the impact of the AIDS epidemic on teachers and the schooling of orphans and other directly affected children in sub-Saharan Africa. The two main conclusions of this article are, firstly, that current and future projections of orphan country populations are likely to be serious overestimates. And secondly, whilst the impact of losing one or both parents on educational attainment is often much less than has been suggested, Ministries of Education need to act decisively in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic on the schooling of these children.

BENNELL, P., HYDE, K. A. L. & SWAINSON, N. (2002) The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the education sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of the findings and recommendations of three country studies.Brighton, Centre for International Education, University of Sussex.
This report presents the main findings and recommendations of an international research project, which has focused on assessing the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on primary and secondary schooling in three countries, namely Botswana, Malawi and Uganda (BMU). Adult HIV prevalence rates were estimated to be 36% in Botswana, 21% in Malawi and 8% in Uganda in 1999. The report explores the following three areas: student prevention and the impacts on students and teachers. The main conclusion of the three country studies is that there is little hard evidence to show that school-based HIV/AIDS education and, more generally, sexual reproductive health and life skills education has had a major impact on sexual behaviour. Generally speaking, students at the survey schools were well informed about the causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS. It is translating this knowledge into behaviour change that remains the major hurdle. Economic and social/cultural pressures that fuel unsafe sexual behaviour among adolescents remain as high as ever, and in the poorest communities, are probably increasing. There is growing concern about the risk of female students contracting HIV from teachers and other older men. Condom use remains highly controversial, particularly in Malawi. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

BIALOBRZESKA, M. (2007) Managing schools in the context of HIV and AIDS- Work in progress. SAIDE Newsletter.
In this article, the author reports on one of the several research projects SAIDE is involved in on the impact of HIV/AIDS on education and possible innovations that can be used to mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on the education system in South Africa. This article focuses on the particular research project that is meant to investigate effective management strategies for mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on schools within the South African context. According to the author, key themes emerging from policy and other guiding official documents on education and HIV/AIDS include:
•Protection of children’s rights and in particular, the right to basic education;
•The role of the School Governing Body and the School Management Team in enabling access to quality education for all children; and
•The role of schools as centers of community life.

BHANA, D., MORRELL, R., EPSTEIN, D. & MOLETSANE, R. (2006) The hidden work of caring: teachers and the maturing AIDS epidemic in diverse secondary schools in Durban. Journal of Education, 5-23.
In this article we argue that, almost unnoticed, teachers are dealing with the consequences of HIV/AIDS in their schools and classrooms. By focusing on the pastoral care of teachers work with learners, we explore the ways that teachers understand the care component of their school work, and describe what they actually do for learners who are either infected or affected by AIDS. Many teachers are in some or other way involved in care work, but the conditions of schools determine the nature and extent of the care work that teachers are called to deliver. In most schools there are no staff employed specifically to provide counseling though well resourced schools often are able to employ counselors to assist learners. Teachers in the schools with the least resources are frequently those required to provide the most demanding forms of support and care to learners. This article is based on interviews with secondary school teachers in the greater Durban area who are responsible for the delivery of the life orientation curriculum in their schools. It is these teachers who are in the frontline of pastoral work although other teachers perform pastoral work too. Teachers in under resourced schools, located in areas characterised by poverty, do a huge amount of work with learners. This work does not fall within the curriculum and cannot easily be measured. It does not count towards promotion nor is it noticed in any public way by the teacher hierarchy. But, we argue, it is this work that is cushioning learners from the trauma of loss that many are confronting. It is thus vital for the well-being of schools, even as it is hidden from public recognition. (Abstract by author/s)

BOLE, T. & JELLEMA, A. (2005) Deadly Inertia: A cross country study of educational responses to HIV/AIDS Global Campaign for Education.
The AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis - currently threatening the lives of around 38 million people and devastating entire societies. Education systems have a critical role to play in fighting this epidemic, because of their capacity to reach very large numbers of young people with life-saving information and skills. This research, undertaken in 2004 in coordination with the first-ever UN Education Sector Global HIV/AIDS Readiness Survey, found that only two of the 18 countries reviewed had a coherent education-sector AIDS strategy that was actually being implemented. In other cases strategic plans either did not yet exist, or they were largely ignored because they had been developed in isolation from other policy and budgetary processes.
Document available online

BOLER, T. & CARROLL, K. (2003) Addressing the educational needs of orphans and vulnerable children. Policy and research. UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS.
This paper describes the educational disadvantages faced by orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) and summarises a number of educational responses. It aims to respond to the concern that orphaned children are dropping out of school at a higher rate than non -orphaned children, and asks how it is best to meet the educational needs of these OVCs. The paper focuses on the following three responses: open and distance learning, school feeding schemes, and the index for inclusion. The paper was developed by the UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS and summarises issues raised from a meeting between researchers, practitioners and policy makers in London 2003. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

BOOYSEN, F. & TANJA, A. (2002) Children of the Storm: HIV/AIDS and Children in South Africa  Social Dynamics, 28, 170-192.
This paper explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, using data from a longitudinal household impact study & focus groups conducted in two communities in the Free State province of South Africa. Nonattendance at school among children in general & particularly older children, although relatively low, is disconcerting, being higher in affected than in nonaffected households. A large & growing number of children have lost their mother or father, pointing to a substantial & growing orphan problem. The extended family remains central in coping with the orphan crisis, although evidence suggests that it is finding it increasingly difficult to cope. It appears that HIV/AIDS results in children being passed from one household to another, particularly in the event of households experiencing an adult death. Government's current initiative to roll out the child support grant to more children is important in addressing this adverse impact of the epidemic, as will be access to home-based care, improved access to education & health care, the empowerment of women & children, & the establishment of community-based orphan care programs. These measures are crucial for safeguarding the right of our children to a bright & hopeful future. (Abstract by author/s)

BRYCESON, D. F., FONSECA, J. & KADZANDIRA, J. (2004) Social Pathways from HIV/AIDS Deadlock of Disease, Denial and Desperation in Rural Malawi. Lilongwe, Renewa and Care.
Document available online

CARR-HILL, R., KATABARO, K. J., KATAHOIRE, A. R. & OULAI, D. (2002) The impact of HIV/AIDS on education and institutionalizing preventive education. Paris, UNESCO-IIEP.
This book examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on education, in particular in Sub-Saharan African countries. It looks at the situation at both macro and micro levels, and emphasizes the need to react quickly and to institutionalize the response of education systems to the negative consequences of the pandemic.
Document available online

CHAWANI, B. S. & KADZAMIRA, E. (2003) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Malawi. Study 1: Examining Policy, Leadership and Advocacy Responses in the Education Sector. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology; IIEP-UNESCO
IIEP and its partner ministries of education launched the collaborative action research programme in 2003. This initiative is designed to contribute to mitigation and prevention of the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in three countries – Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. The focus of the research activities is essentially needs assessment. This, in turn, will help to prioritize options for the development of policy, training and other measures to enable the education sector to strengthen its internal capacity in two critical areas. These are to respond to the impact of the epidemic on its staff at all levels and to maintain progress towards EFA goals.

CHAWANI, B. S. & KADZAMIRA, E. (2004) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Malawi: Study 2 Examining the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Governance in the Education Sector. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology; IIEP-UNESCO.
See study 1.
Document available online

COOMBE, C. (Ed.) (2004) The HIV challenge to education: A collection of essays.Paris, UNESCO-IIEP.
This book consists of ten essays that deal with the relationship between HIV/AIDS and education. The main message it conveys through those essays is that “education in an AIDS- infected world cannot be the same as that in an AIDS-free world”. It gives insights, suggestions and examples from some African countries on some possible ways education can respond to the threats posed by this pandemic. The essays draw from the experiences and perceptions of a wide range of education stakeholders; educators, researchers, policy-makers and planners. Although it shows a grim picture regarding the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS, particularly in Africa, it carries a message of hope and faith in education. 

COOMBE, C. & KELLY, M. (2001) Education and a Vehicle for Combating HIV/AIDS. Prospects, 31, 435-446.
Education potentially serves as a weapon to empower people against the HIV/AIDS. Adapted education to combat the disease is a sure way to reduce the spread. Having said that, it should be known that the education sector in most developing countries is becoming dramatically weakened due to HIV/AIDS. This document brings this message to the forefront and then outlines concrete actions and interventions to change and improve the situation in the education sector (Abstract by HIV/AIDS impact on education Clearinghouse)
Document available online

COULSON, N. (2002) Developments in the Use of the Mass Media at the National Level for HIV/AIDS Prevention in South Africa. The Communication Initiative.

CRAMPIN, A., FLOYD, S., GLYNN, J., MADISE, M., NYONDO, A., KHONDOWE, M., NJOKA, C., KANYONGOLOKA, H., NGWIRA, B., ZABA, B. & FINE, P. (2003) The Long-Term Impact of HIV and Orphanhood on the Mortality and Physical Well-being of Children in Rural Malawi. AIDS, 17, 389–97.
Document available online

FLOYD, S., CRAMPIN, A., GLYNN, J., MADISE, N. & MWENEBABU, M. (2007) The social and economic impact of parental HIV on children in northern Malawi: Retrospective population-based cohort study. AIDS Care, 19, 781-790.
From population-based surveys in the 1980s in Karonga district, northern Malawi, 197 'index individuals' were identified as HIV-positive. 396 HIV-negative 'index individuals' were selected as a comparison group. These individuals, and their spouses and children, were followed up in 1998-2000. 582 of 593 index individuals were traced. 487 children of HIV-positive, and 1493 children of HIV-negative, parents were included in analyses. Rates of paternal, maternal, and double orphanhood among children with one or both parents HIV-positive were respectively 6, 8, and 17 times higher than for children with HIV-negative parents. Around 50% of children living apart from both parents had a grandparent as their guardian; for most of the rest the guardian was an aunt, uncle, or sibling. There were no child-headed households. Almost all children aged 6-14 were attending primary school. There was no evidence that parental HIV affected primary school attainment among children < 15 years old. Children of HIV-positive parents were less likely to have attended secondary school than those of HIV-negative parents. The extended family has mitigated the impact of orphanhood on children, but interventions to reduce the incidence of orphanhood, and/or which strengthen society's ability to support orphans, are essential, especially as the HIV epidemic matures and its full impact is felt. (Abstract by author/s)

FOSTER, G. (2006) Children who live in communities affected by AIDS. The Lancet, 367, 700-701.
Short essay focusing on the difficulties facing governments seeking to adhere to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in the face of challenges posed by high HIV prevalence.

GCE (2004) Learning to survive: how education for all would save millions of children from HIV/AIDS. Brussels, Global Campaign for Education (GCE).
Document available online

GOLDSTEIN, S., USDIN, S., SCHEEPERS, E., ANDERSON, A. & JAPHET, G. (2002) The Treatment of AIDS in "Soul Buddyz". A Multimedia Campaign for Children's Health in South Africa. Parktown, Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication.
South Africa has one of the most extensive AIDS epidemics in the world with 4.7 million people infected with the HIV virus. Although there are smaller countries with higher prevalence HIV prevalence rates, South Africa has the dubious distinction of having the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS is the largest cause of death in South Africa and as such is the national public health priority. “Soul Buddyz” is a South African mass media edutainment vehicle for children aged eight to twelve years old, based on the successful “Soul City” adult vehicle. The methodology was used to reach children with important messages about AIDS, youth sexuality, and gender. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

GOLDSTEIN, S., USDIN, S., SCHEEPERS, E. & JAPHET, G.  (2005) Communicating HIV and AIDS, What Works? A Report on the Impact Evaluation of Soul City's Fourth Series. Journal of Health Communication 10, 465-483.
This article describes the evaluation of the HIV/AIDS communication aspect of the multi media Soul City health promotion intervention in South Africa. The intervention consists of a television and radio drama and print material. The evaluation was multifaceted with a before and after national survey and a national qualitative study. In the before and after survey change was measured and then multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the variables associated with the change. The qualitative study consisted of focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The studies show that there are numerous instances of community change and how the change is mediated at the community level. The studies also describe the change at a number of levels of the described behaviour change model for individuals.

GREGSON, S., TERCEIRA, N., MUSHATI, P., NYAMUKAPA, C. & CAMPBELL, C. (2004) Community group participation: Can it help young women to avoid HIV? An exploratory study of social capital and school education in rural Zimbabwe. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 2119-2132.
The lifetime risk of acquiring HIV infection in many rural as well as urban areas of southern Africa is currently as high as two-in-three. For women, much of this risk still accrues rapidly at young ages despite high levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Thus, programmes that are more participatory and address underlying structural and community-level factors appear to be essential. We use cross-sectional data from a large-scale, population-based survey in rural eastern Zimbabwe to describe the relationships between membership of different forms of community group and young women's chances of avoiding HIV. Our results show that participation in local community groups is often positively associated with successful avoidance of HIV, which, in turn, is positively associated with psychosocial determinants of safer behaviour. However, whether or not these relationships hold depends on a range of factors that include how well the group functions, the purpose of the group, and the education level of the individual participant. We identify factors that may influence the social capital value of community groups in relation to HIV prevention at the individual, group, and community levels. Young women with secondary education participate disproportionately in well-functioning community groups and are more likely to avoid HIV when they do participate. Longitudinal studies are needed: (i) to establish whether community group membership supports the development of safer lifestyles or merely has greater appeal to individuals already predisposed towards such lifestyles, and (ii) to pinpoint directions of causality between hypothesised mediating factors. In-depth research is needed on the specific qualities of community groups that enhance their contribution to HIV control. However, our findings suggest that promotion of and organisational development and training among community groups could well be an effective HIV control strategy. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

GRIFFITHS, J. (2005) HIV/AIDS Intervention Programs in Africa: The Role of Grassroot Soccer. School of Education. Stanford University.
HIV/AIDS drastically affects Africa’s youth. As there is no cure, education and prevention programs are the primary ways of decreasing HIV/AIDS death and infection rates. Health specialists declare that since schools are where the largest proportion of children can be reached, school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs are the most efficient and effective ways to fight this epidemic (UNICEF, 2001). However, in most African countries, governments have struggled to effectively implement HIV/AIDS prevention programs into schools. As a result, civil society, particularly non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become legitimate players in trying to improve HIV/AIDS education. In this thesis I
identify problems related to the implementation of school-based HIV/AIDS programs, and then use Grassroot Soccer (GRS) as a case study of how an NGO has helped improve current HIV/AIDS prevention programs for children in Africa. I conclude by arguing that if GRS is going to play an important role in improving current HIV/AIDS education programs, they will need to continue to work collaboratively with schools and governments and move the focus on soccer to find other ways of including role models to which both boys and girls can relate. (Abstract by author)

HAINSWORTH, G. (2002) Providing Sexual Reproductive Health and STI/HIV Information and Services to this Generation: Insights from the Geração Biz Experience. Maputo Pathfinder, Mozambique.

HALL, D. (2007) Dying of AIDS, Dying of Fear. Barriers to VCT uptake in a Lesotho Garment Factory. ALAFA - Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight AIDS.
The garment sector, which generates the bulk of Lesotho’s exports and employs around 47,000 people, will be particularly hard hit by the pandemic as it employs large numbers of women in vulnerable age categories.  In response, a private sector initiative, known as the Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight Aids (ALAFA), was launched in May 2006 to provide education and prevention, VCT, and management of the disease through the roll-out of antiretroviral drugs.  This report documents the findings of an in-depth investigation carried out in one of the ALAFA-supported factories (Precious Garments) into the use of VCT and related services now being offered by the Project.  Given the widespread interest in issues related to the uptake of VCT and ARV services, the report is likely to be of value to other work-based VCT/ARV projects, as well as to those working more widely in the HIV/AIDS sector. Download document

HALPERIN, D. and WILLIAMS, B. (2001). This Is No Way to Fight Aids in Africa. Washington Post.

HARGREAVES, J. R. & GLYNN, J. R. (2002) Educational attainment and HIV-1 infection in developing countries: a systematic review. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 7, 489-498.
The objective of the study was to assess whether educational status is associated with HIV-1 infection in developing countries by conducting a systematic review of published literature. According to the authors, in Africa, higher educational attainment is often associated with a greater risk of HIV infection. However, the pattern of new HIV infections may be changing towards a greater burden among less educated groups. In Thailand those with more schooling remain at lower risk of HIV infection.
Document available online

HEPBURN, A. (2004) Increasing Primary Education Access for Children in AIDS-Affected Areas. In COOMBE, C. (Ed.) The HIV Challenge to Education: A collection of essays. International Institute for Educational Planning.
This chapter considers the depth of the crisis facing orphans and other vulnerable children affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa and the the barriers to learnign that they encounter.  The chapter makes proposals for ways in which communities can take charge of the needs of such learners for critical learning skills, while taking into account their need for security, stability, personal growth and development. (Abstract from a chapter)

HOSEGOOD, V. & FORD, K. (2003) The impact of HIV and AIDS on children's living arrangements and migration in rural South Africa.
Document available online

HOSEGOOD, V., PRESTON-WHYTEC, E., BUSZAA, B., MOITSED, S. & TIMAEUSA, I. (2007) Revealing the full extent of households’ experiences of HIV and AIDS in rural South Africa. Social Science and Medicine.
Households experience HIV and AIDS in a complex and changing set of environments. These include health and welfare treatment and support services, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, and individual and household social and economic circumstances. This paper documents the experiences of 12 households directly affected by HIV and AIDS in rural KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, between 2002 and 2004. The households were observed during repeated visits over a period of more than a year by ethnographically trained researchers. Field notes were analysed using thematic content analysis to identify themes and sub-themes. This paper focuses on three dimensions of household experience of HIV and AIDS that have received little attention in HIV and AIDS impact studies. First, that experience of HIV and AIDS is cumulative. In an area where population surveys report HIV prevalence rates of over 20% in adults, many households face multiple episodes of HIV-related illness and AIDS deaths. We describe how these challenges affect perceptions and responses within and outside households. Second, while over 50% of all adult deaths are due to AIDS, households continue to face other causes of illness and death. We show how these other causes compound the impact of AIDS, particularly where the deceased was the main income earner and/or primary carer for young children. Third, HIV-related illness and AIDS deaths of household members are only part of the households’ cumulative experience of HIV and AIDS. Illness and death of non-household members, for example, former partners who are parents of children within the households or relatives who provide financial support, also impact negatively on households. We also discuss how measuring multiple episodes of illness and deaths can be recorded in household surveys in order to improve quantitative assessments of the impact of HIV and AIDS. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

KADZAMIRA, E. C. (2001) The impact of HIV/AIDS on formal schooling in Malawi.Brighton, Centre for International Education, University of Sussex

KADZAMIRA, E. C., BANDA, D. M., KAMLONGERA, A. & SWAINSON, N. (2001) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary and Secondary Schooling in Malawi: Developing a Comprehensive Strategic Response. Lilongwe, Ministry of Education Science and Technology; University of Malawi.
This report presents the findings and recommendations of an impact assessment of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on primary and secondary schooling in Malawi. As is well known, sub-Saharan Africa is at the centre of this global epidemic.
Document available online

KELLY, M. (2000) Planning for education in the context of HIV/AIDS. Fundamentals of Education Planning 66. Paris, UNESCO/IIEP.
Document available online

KELLY, M. J. (2000) The Encounter Between HIV/AIDS and Education. Lusaka, School of Education, University of Zambia.
HIV/AIDS is conceptualised as having the potential to affect education through ten different mechanisms: reduction in demand, reduction in supply, reduction in availability of resources, adjustments in response to the special needs of a rapidly increasing number of orphans, adaptation to new interactions both within schools and between schools and communities, curriculum modification, altered roles that have to be adopted by teachers and the education system, the ways in which schools and the education system are organised, the planning and management of the system, and donor support for education. Nevertheless, in the face of the epidemic, education can generate hope because of its potential to work at the three levels where AIDS-related interventions are needed:
1. while there is as yet no infection: by providing knowledge that will inform self-protection;fostering the development of a personally held, constructive value system; inculcating skills that will facilitate self-protection; promoting behaviour that will lower infection risks; and enhancing capacity to help others to protect themselves against risk; 2. when infection has occurred: by strengthening the ability to cope with personal and/or family infection; promoting care for those who are infected; helping young people stand up for the human rights that are threatened by their personal or family HIV/AIDS condition; and reducing stigma, silence, shame, discrimination; 3. when AIDS has brought death: by help in coping with grief and loss, in the reorganisation of life after the death of family members, and in the assertion of personal rights In the longer term, and more generically, education plays a key role in establishing conditions that render the transmission of HIV/AIDS less likely—conditions such as poverty reduction, personal empowerment, gender equity. It also reduces vulnerability to a variety of factors, such as streetism, prostitution, or the dependence of women on men, which are a breeding ground for HIV infection. (Abstract an extract from the book)

KENDALL, N. & O'GARA, C. (2007) Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 37, 5-21.
The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected communities. Case studies of schools and vulnerable children in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe show that although schools are materially and symbolically well-positioned to serve as the institutional base to meet the needs of vulnerable children, schools are not accountable for these children and have not reorganised or built capacity to meet their special needs. The Malawi and Zimbabwe cases show that elimination of fees, passive open door policies and exhortations are insufficient measures to bring and keep these children in school. The Kenya case study suggests that investments in long term, well-resourced local partnerships can be effective. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

KESBY, M., GWANZURA-OTTEMOLLER, F. & CHIZORORO, M. (2006) Theorising other 'other childhoods': Issues emerging from work on HIV in urban and rural Zimbabwe. Children's Geographies, 4, 185 - 202.
This paper agrees that universal models of childhood must be unpacked in order to reveal the diversity of 'other childhoods' in the global south, but argues that local, culturally specific understandings of childhood also need to be theorised and deconstructed. We attempt to do this by exploring experiences that are 'other' to 'other childhoods' and so examine the 'un-childlike' issues of young peoples' sexual health and child household headship in Zimbabwe. We contend that a century of contestation around the social production of identities in and through space has produced local contemporary understandings of childhood that seriously endanger youngsters in an era of HIV/AIDS. We argue both that other dimensions of 'other childhoods' must be recognised locally and that local understandings of childhood require greater international recognition if the pandemic is to be tackled. Finally, our exploration of these 'margins' of human experience lead us to believe that children must be understood both as competent and independent agents of social change and as vulnerable social becomings in need of protection. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

KINGHORN, A. & KELLY, M. (2005) The impact of the AIDS epidemic. Articles by Paul Bennell: Some Comments. Journal of Development Studies, 41, 489-499.
This article responds to previous analyses of the impact of HIV and AIDS on the education sectors by Bennell.  It acknowledges that more resarch is needed to clear up misunderstandings. However,  it contends that enought is already know about what needs to be done to mitigate the impact on children for policy development and programme development to continue. 

LOEWENSON, R. (2007) Exploring equity and inclusion in the responses to AIDS. AIDS Care, 19, 2-11.
The HIV and AIDS epidemic feeds on, and worsens, unacceptable situations of poverty, gender inequity, social insecurity, limited access to healthcare and education, war, debt and macroeconomic and social instability. The number of people living with HIV and AIDS continues to increase in several regions, most markedly in sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The persistent nature of the epidemic and its increasing incidence in less powerful, more economically marginalised communities signals a need for a critical review of past policy and practice, particularly where this has left unchanged or worsened the risk environments that lead to new infection. Available evidence suggests that the caring and consumption burdens of AIDS have largely been met by households, limiting the capacities for future caring and mitigation of impact. Social cohesion or the collective networking, action, trust and solidarity of society, plays a positive role in reducing risk and dealing with vulnerability but is itself negatively affected by AIDS. This paper introduces the programme of work reported in this supplement of AIDS Care with an analysis of background evidence of community responses to HIV and AIDS. It explores how interventions from state institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) support and interact with these household, family and community responses. How far is risk prevention reliant on individuals' limited resources and power to act, while risk environments are left unchanged? How far are the impacts of AIDS borne by households and extended families, with weak solidarity support? Where are the examples of wider social responses that challenge the conditions that influence risk and that support household recovery? Through review of literature, this background paper sets out the questions that the studies reported in this supplement have, in various settings, sought to explore more deeply.

MADHAVEN, S. (2004) Fosterage patterns in the age of AIDS: continuity and change. Social Science and Medicine, 58, 1443-1454.
An estimated 4 million children, or about 10% of the entire South African population, will be orphaned by the year 2015. There is a growing consensus that the extended family system is no longer capable of providing for orphans given severe ecopnomic constraints.  There is, therefore, an urgency to develop appropriate interventions to support families and take care of these chilldren.  This article examines some of the existing literature on child fosterage and uses it to highlight understudied aspects of the current situation of children orphaned through AIDS in south Africa.  Of particular concern are the points of continuity and change in fosterage patterns before and after onset of the epidemic in South Africa.  I suggest that an understanding of the short- and long-term consequences for children orphaned in south Africa calls for historical contextualisation given that fostering, both voluntarily and involuntarily, has been a feature of black family life since well before the onset of HIV/AIDS.  In addition, I demonstrate the value of examining kinship, family, and networks in order to fully understand the circumstances of fostering these chidlren.  The paper concludes with a call for more research on children orphaned by AIDS in South Africa that will provide not only more data, but also enrich theoretical approaches to studying patterns of children fosterage in Africa and elsewhere.

MANN, G. (2002) Family Matters: the Care and Protection of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Malawi. Document available online

MATTHEWS, C., BOON, H., FLISHER, A. J. & SCHAALMA, H. P. (2006) Factors associated with teachers’ implementation of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care, 18, 388-397.
This study investigated the factors influencing whether high school teachers implemented HIV/AIDS education. The independent variables included constructs derived from expectancy value theories, teachers’ generic dispositions, their training experience, characteristics of their interactive context and the school climate. We conducted a postal survey of 579 teachers responsible for AIDS education in all 193 public high schools in Cape Town. Questionnaires were completed and returned by 324 teachers (54% response rate) from 125 schools. Many teachers (222; 70%) had implemented HIV/AIDS education during 2003, and female teachers were more likely to have implemented than males (74% vs.58%). The teacher characteristics associated with teaching HIV/AIDS were previous training, self- efficacy, student- centeredness, beliefs about controllability and the outcome of HIV/AIDS education, and their responsibility. The experience of a school HIV/AIDS policy, a climate of equity and fairness, and good school- community relations were the school characteristics associated with teaching HIV/AIDS. These findings demonstrate the value of teacher training and school policy formulation. They also demonstrate the value and importance of interventions that go beyond a sexual health agenda, focusing on broader school development to improve school functioning and school climate. (Abstract by author/s)

NYAMUKAPA, C. & GREGSON, S. (2005) Extended family's and women's roles in safeguarding orphans' education in AIDS-afflicted rural Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 2155-67.
The extended family forms the basis for orphan care and education in sub-Saharan Africa.  Initial absence followed by emergence of differentials in primary school enrolment between orphans and non-orphans have been attributed to the strength and subsequent HIV/AIDS-induced breakdown of extended family orphan care attangements.  yet, few attempts ahve been made to describe how these arrangements are affected by HIV/AIDS or how they relate to observed patterns of childrenhood outcomes by sex and orphan status. We use a combination of quantitative and qualitative data to show that maternal orphans but not paternal or double orphans have lower primary school completion rates than non-orphans in rural Zimbabwe, and that these patterns reflect adaptations and gaps in etended family orphan care arrangements.  Sustained high levels of primary school completion amongst paternal and double orphans - particularly for girls - result from increased residence in female-headed households and greater access to external resources.  Low primary school completion amongst maternal orphans results from lack of support from fathers and stepmothers and ineligibility for welfare assistance due to residence in higher socio-economic status households. These effects are particularly offset by increased assistance from maternal relatives. These findings indicate that programmes should assist maternal orphans and support women's efforts by reinforcing the roles of extended families and local communities, and by facilitating greater self-sufficiency. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

ODIWUOR, W. H. (2000) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education: A Case Study on Selected Districts of Kenya. Stockholm, Institute of International Education, University of Stockholm.
This study compares, describes, and analyzes the impact of HIV/AIDS on primary education in Kenya in terms of enrolment, participation, completion and drop-out rates of pupils in selected urban and rural case study schools in two districts, Homa Bay and Murang'a. Special attention has been paid to the gender perspectives, including traditional gender roles and the cultural patterns prevailing around the case school communities. Findings suggest that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has added numerous challenges to education both at the micro and the macro-levels but more at the micro-level where it affects the individual, a particular household, or a particular community. Findings also suggest that the impact of HIV/AIDS on pupils goes far beyond enduring the suffering and death of an infected family member. The child is at risk of the stigma and tragedy that accompanies the disease. This includes becoming an Aids orphan. These children are part of the increasing numbers of street children who engage in drug use and are being exploited as child labor. The study also shows that HIV/AIDS has taken its toll among pre-teens, teens, young adults, the middle-aged, and the aged. The youth become exposed to HIV/AIDS due to several biological, socio-cultural, and economic factors. Evidence of high rates of teenage pregnancies confirms that the youth are engaging in early sexual activities and increasingly being predisposed to HIV/AIDS. (Abstract is an extract)

PHAROAH, R. (2004) A Generation at Risk? HIV/AIDS, Vulnerable Children and Security in Southern Africa. IN PHAROAH, R. (Ed.) ISS Monograph Series. South Africa. Institute for Security Studies.
HIV/AIDS is acknowledged as an increasingly significant humanitarian and developmental concern. It is also increasingly seen as a security issue, with implications for the well being of individuals, households, communities and states. Faced with the prospect of growing numbers of AIDS orphans, some analysts have speculated that large numbers of orphans could themselves represent a security challenge. The aim of this monograph is to examine such assumptions by exploring both the context in which HIV/AIDS orphaning is occurring and the likely developmental implications of both HIV/AIDS and AIDS related orphanhood. In so doing it seeks to better understand both what it means to be a child in Southern Africa and the factors affecting the interplay between HIV/AIDS, poverty and vulnerability.

PHIRI, S. & WEBB, D. (2002) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Orphans and Programme and Policy Responses. AIDS, Public Policy and Child Well-Being.
As policy makers assess the growing weight of the orphan and children affected by AIDS burden, there are key policy challenges apparent. These challenges relate to (1) reaching consensus on policy related definitions of orphans and vulnerable children, (2) the emergence and realisation of rights based approaches to programming for orphans and vulnerable children, (3) the explication and scaling up of ‘good’ practices in supporting orphans and vulnerable children, (4) effective flow of ‘resources to the base’ and finally (5) mobilising political will. These challenge overlap and interrelate, but constitute the key constraints on widespread and effective responses. The synergy needed between community-rooted responses and international and national political will is slowly emerging but is still fundamentally absent. Policy priorities relate to resources primarily, and the balance between community mobilised resources and external financing and intervention. This balance will vary from place to place and current operational research can provide an understanding of economic realities to be combined with the emerging ethical and principle based ethos of programmers. Addressing the psychosocial welfare elements of orphans and children in affected communities is now a matter of urgency. The cycle of infection will be exacerbated by young people growing up in contexts where mental ill health is rife, combined with feelings of isolation, despair and social disenfranchisement. The responses required are in themselves not complex, but are needed at such an unprecedented scale that we are only starting to comprehend the implications. While constraints remain in the form of chronic and deepening poverty, capacity limitations and political indifference at all levels, the challenges facing themselves have never been greater. (Abstract by author/s)
Document available online

POULSEN, H. (2006) The gendered impact of HIV/AIDS on education in South Africa and Swaziland: Save the Children's experiences. Gender and Development, 14, 47-56.
Children are dropping out of school in large numbers in communities affected by HIV/AIDS, despite policies and programmes that are designed to support their continued attendance. Research carried out by Save the Children in South Africa and Swaziland concludes that factors influencing drop-out are poverty related, exacerbated by HIV/AIDS. These factors also play out in gendered ways. Interventions aimed at supporting the enrolment, participation and achievement of vulnerable children at school must tackle not only financial constraints to schooling for orphans, but the constraints to schooling for vulnerable girls and boys more broadly. 

PRIDMORE, P. & YATES, C. (2005) Combating AIDS in South Africa and Mozambique: The Role of Open, Distance, and Flexible Learning (ODFL) Comparative Education Review, 49.
This study provides an initial examination of the potential of open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL) to increase access to learning and thereby mitigate the affects of HIV and AIDS on young people in Mozambique and South Africa. It analyses national AIDS policy and identifies major ODFL initiatives to translate this policy into practice. It explores the learning needs and favourite ways of learning of young people affected by HIV and AIDS, and suggests ways for ODFL to support and extend the work of existing infrastructures. The central argument in this paper is that to confront AIDS, and to meet Millennium Development Goals in high HIV prevalence countries, governments must move beyond current efforts to accelerate conventional responses. They must grasp the opportunity to transform the education system, to deliver education more flexibly and to empower young people to participate in moving their communities towards the post-AIDS era. To do this, the full and strategic support of the entire education community, including those with expertise in planning and programming for ODFL, will need to be harnessed.  (Abstract by authors)

PRIDMORE, P. & YATES, C. (2006) The Role of Open, Distance and Flexible Learning (ODFL) in HIV/AIDS Prevention and Mitigation for Affected Youth in South Africa and Mozambique.London, DFID.
This study provides an initial examination of the potential of open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL) to mitigate the affects of HIV and AIDS on young people, through an examination of experiences from Mozambique and South Africa. It analyses national AIDS policy and identifies major ODFL initiatives to translate this policy into practice. It explores the learning needs and favourite ways of learning of young people affected by HIV and AIDS, and suggests ways for ODFL to support and extend the work of existing infrastructures. The central argument in this monograph is that to confront AIDS, and to meet Millennium Development Goals in high HIV prevalence countries, governments must move beyond current efforts to accelerate conventional responses. They must grasp the opportunity to transform the education system, to deliver education more flexibly and to empower young people to participate in moving their communities towards the post-AIDS era. To do this, the full and strategic support of the entire education community, including those with expertise in planning and programming for ODFL, will need to be harnessed. (Abstract by authors)
Document available online

REIJER, P., CHALIMBA, M. & NAKWAGALA, A. A. (2002) Malawi goes to scale with anti-AIDS clubs and popular media. Evaluation and Program Planning, 25, 357-363.
This paper evaluates a project in Malawi that aimed to provide in-school and out-of-school youth with the necessary tools and skills to avoid high-risk sexual behavior, in order to reduce HIV transmission. Project components were school curriculum; extra-curricular activities; out-of-school youth clubs; enabling environmental support; youth reproductive health services; and research, monitoring and evaluation. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and Youth Technical Committees established 3200 anti-AIDS Clubs throughout Malawi. These Clubs positively influenced members' behavior and helped to `break the silence'. An enabling environment was created through two popular radio programs, advertisements and provision of sports equipment. The out-of-school youth clubs needed clearer criteria and objectives. Many objectives were achieved, but the aim of establishing health services for youth was over-ambitious, and not achieved. This program is exemplary for the national scale that it achieved, and for its approach of using diverse partners to implement locally adapted components.
Document available online

RICHTER, L. (2004) The impact of HIV/AIDS on the development of children. In PHAROAH, R. (Ed.) A generation at risk: HIV/AIDS, vulnerable children and security on Southern Africa. Pretoria, Institute of Security Studies.
The aim of this monograph is to examine such assumptions by exploring both the context in which HIV/AIDS orphaning is occurring and the likely developmental implications of both HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related orphanhood. In so doing it seeks to better understand both what it means to be a child in Southern Africa and the factors affecting the interplay between HIV/AIDS, poverty and vulnerability.
Document available online

RICHTER, L., MANEGOLD, J. & PATHER, R. (2004) Family and Community Interventions for Children affected by AIDS. Cape Town, Human Sciences Research Council.
This research monograph forms part of a project to implement a strategy for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on more than 400 documents, the report reviews the available information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities.
Document available online

RIMAL, R. & TAPIA, M. (2004) Exploring Community Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviors about HIV/AIDS in Eight Malawi BRIDGE Districts. Baltimore, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University.
Document available online

RISPEL, L. (2006) Education Sector Responses to HIV and AIDS: Learning from Good Practices in Africa. London, Commonwealth Secretariat.
This document summarises the key issues regarding HIV and AIDS and the education sector and is based primarily on a review of published literature and the findings of the regional workshop organised by the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) from 12 to 14 September 2006 at the Airport Grand Hotel in Johannesburg, South Africa. The workshop was attended by 40 delegates, and its focus was on ‘Good Practices in Education Sector Responses to HIV and AIDS in Africa’. (Abstract an extract from the paper)
Document available online

SADC (2001) SADC HIV/AIDS in Education Strategic Framework. SADC.
Document available online

SCHIERHOUT, G., KINGHORN, A., GOVENDER, R., MUNGANI, J. & MORELY, P. (2004) Quantifying effects of illness and death on education at school level: Implications for HIV/AIDS responses.
The paper focuses on the impact of HIV/AIDS on education. It identifies key factors that act as barriers to education on the part of affected and infected children. It further shows that although there is growing evidence of the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in sub-Saharan Africa, there is very little empirical work that has been done at school level in South Africa in order to quantify the extent of the problem and moot effective strategies of mitigating the devastative effects of the pandemic. Drawing on studies that have been conducted elsewhere, the paper argues that dropout or failure to enroll is the grossest manifestation of impacts of orphan-hood on education. It reports that international evidence indicates that orphans tend to have lower enrollment rates than children with both parents alive. The paper problematises the linkage often made between orphanage and lower enrollment rates by alluding to the complex interplay of the social, economic and cultural circumstances of individual children affected. Thus, dropout by orphaned children may not necessarily be due to lack of finances to sustain educational costs, but indeed may be due to other factors. On the whole, the paper concedes that HIV/AIDS has a serious negative impact on school performance, completion rates and general development of learners.  

SEAMAN, J. & PETTY, C. (2005) Malawi Assessment: The impact of HIV/AIDS on household economy in two villages in Salima district Save the Children Fund UK.
The focus of this study is on the link between poverty, HIV/AIDS and household economy; it describes the use of the individual household economy method (IHM) to measure and model poverty and the impact of HIV at household level. Results are based on village studies carried out in Malawi, Mozambique and Swaziland during 2003 and 2004. The impact of HIV/AIDS is set in the context of other destabilising shocks including drought, recession, and market liberalisation. The implications of findings for social protection policy initiatives are discussed and a series of policy impact simulations which demonstrate the range of poverty effects are described.
Document available online

SHAEFFER, S. (1994) The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education. A Review of Literature and Experience.Paris, UNESCO.
Document available online

SHETTY, A. K. & POWELL, G. (2003) Children orphaned by AIDS: A global perspective. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 14, 25-31.
Internationally, the orphan crisis caused by the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic remains a serious issue with long-term social consequences. At the end of 2001, an estimated 14 million children worldwide had lost their mother or both parents to AIDS or related causes. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most severely affected, accounting for more than 80 percent of those orphaned as a result of AIDS. Without the care of parents or an appointed caregiver, children are likely to face extraordinary risks of malnutrition, poor health, inadequate schooling, migration, homelessness, and abuse. Strengthening existing family and community capacity to assist orphans in Africa should be the first priority. Community support must be coupled with support for education for orphans. Combining local and international responses to deliver protection and services to all orphans and vulnerable children is critical. In addition, saving the lives of parents through access to antiretroviral therapies in resource-poor countries in conjunction with bold support for alleviation of poverty and education must be an integral part of the global response to the orphan crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. (Abstract by author/s)

STILLWATER, E. (2006) AIDS and the Ecology of Poverty, Oxford University Press.
HIV/AIDS flourishes where people are dying of myriad other diseases that are almost unknown amongst affluent populations.  This book draws on epidemiology which recognises that people who are malnourished, burdened with parasites and infectious diseases, and lacking access to medical care are vulnerable to other diseases, regardless of whether they are transmitted by air, water, food or sexual contact.  HIV/AIDS is no exception.

THANGATA, P. H., HILDEBRAND, P. E. & KWESIGA, I. F. (2007) Predicted impact of HIV/AIDS on improved fallow adoption and rural household food security in Malawi. Sustainable Development, 15, 205 - 215.
Research was conducted to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on improved fallow adoption and rural household food security in Malawi. An ethnographic linear programming model was created for a representative household with three scenarios: no illness, adult female illness and adult male illness. Results show that the impact of HIV/AIDS on food production depends on the patient's gender. If a male head of household is sick and later dies, available field labour is reduced as family members are expected to care for him and, consequently, less food and cash crops are produced, which creates a food insecure household. However, when a woman is sick and later dies, the effect on male labour is not as great, as males are not care-givers. We conclude that in an HIV/AIDS environment, agroforestry adoption is more feasible in households in which available labour is undisrupted for longer periods of time.

UNAIDS (2006) 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic: A UNAIDS 10th anniversary special edition. Geneva, UNAIDS.
Document available online

UNAIDS (2006) Child Protection and Children Affected by AIDS. A companion paper to the Framework for the protection, care and support of orphans and vulnerable children living in a world with HIV and AIDS New York, UNAIDS.
This paper provides additional information and outlines recommended actions for protecting affected children from increased vulnerability, and for reducing the higher risks they face of abuse, exploitation and neglect. While this paper discusses the protection issues facing children globally, its actions speak directly to the findings of the new research on the vulnerability of orphans in Africa as documented in the publication ‘Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children affected by AIDS.

UNAIDS (2006) Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. New York, UNAIDS.
Document available online

UNAIDS/UNICEF (2006) Africa’s orphaned and vulnerable generations: Children affected by AIDS.New York.
The AIDS epidemic in Africa puts children at risk physically, emotionally and economically. All children are indirectly affected when their communities, and the services these communities provide, are strained by these consequences of the epidemic. Nurses, doctors, teachers and others can become ill and die from AIDS, affecting health care, education and other basic services. Children are directly affected in a number of ways. They may live at high risk of HIV; they may live with a chronically ill parent or parents and be required to work or put their education on hold as they take on household and caregiving responsibilities; their households may experience greater poverty because of the disease; and they can be subjected to stigma and discrimination because of their association with a person living with HIV. Children can also become orphans, having lost one or both parents to AIDS-related illnesses. In recent years, there has been a surge in leadership and resources for the fight against AIDS, with $8.3 billion available in 2005 alone for responding to the epidemic in low- and middle-income countries. The impact of the epidemic on children, however, has yet to receive the priority attention it deserves. (Abstract by author/s)
Document availble online

VAN WYK, N. & LEMMER, E. (2007) Redefining home-school community partnerships in South Africa in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. South African Journal of Education, 27, 301-316.

Estimates suggest that approximately 12% of South Africans are HIV positive. As a result of the rapid increase of infections in the mid-1990s and the concomitant increase in HIV/AIDS-related deaths, it is estimated that 13% of children have lost one or both parents due to AIDS. In this study data were obtained by open –ended written accounts by teachers and in-depth interviews with teachers and school principals in a small sample of selected schools in KwaZulu- Natal. Findings indicated that in severely affected communities, teachers were often compelled to assume roles traditionally filled by parents. AIDS awareness programmes formed part of the schools’ curriculum. However, many schools did not consider involving grandparents, other care-givers and community members in the physical, emotional and cognitive support needed by learners because teachers lacked training and schools lacked a policy of parent and community involvement in education of learners. (Abstract by author/s)

VISSER, M. J., SCHOEMAN, J. B. & PEROLD, J. J. (2004) Evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention in South African schools. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 263-280.
This article reports on the implementation of school-based HIV/AIDS and life-skills training programme to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among the young people in secondary schools in South Africa. The implementation of the programme was evaluated for a period of two years, using process and outcome evaluation and a systems approach to understand the higher-order feedback processes that obstructed the implementation and effectiveness of the intervention. Although HIV/AIDS is a medical condition, this article emphasizes that HIV/AIDS prevention is interrelated with the psychosocial context within the community. Interventions should therefore be conceptualized and implemented in terms of the various levels of interaction in the community. (Abstract by author/s)

WORLD BANK (2002) Education and HIV/AIDS: A window of Hope. Washington, The World Bank.
This text provides a strategic direction for the World Bank in responding to the impact of HIV/AIDS on education systems. The central message of the book is that the education of children and youth deserves the highest priority in a world afflicted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. For boys and girls, education has been proven to provide protection against HIV infection. The book outlines the impact of HIV on education, particularly in severely affected areas such as sub-Saharan Africa.
Document available online

WORLD BANK & UNICEF (2002) Education and HIV/AIDS: Ensuring education access for orphans and vulnerable children. Mombasa, UNICEF.
HIV/AIDS-related death has claimed over 20 million lives over recent decades, and an estimated 40 million people are living with the disease today.  Most of the victims are parents whose absence has left their children living under extremely difficult conditions. The recent UNICEF ‘Children on the Brink’ report estimates that currently, 13 million children under the age of 15 have lost either one or both parents due to AIDS.  By 2010 this number is expected to reach 25 million. The number of orphans from parental deaths of all causes, is predicted to number a staggering 106 million.   The future of these children is at stake, particularly as it involves their access to social amenities such as health and education services. 

UNICEF (2007) Caring for Children affected by HIV and AIDS. Florence, UNICEF.
Document available online


Back to Annoted Bibliography list


Partners SOFIElogoInstitute of Education logoESRC logoDFID logo SAIDE logo University of Malawi logo National University of Lesotho logo
Copyright© 2007 Institute of Education